Written by Linda Yaciw in 1998
The Cleveland Bay is the oldest established breed of English horse and is known as an English Warmblood.
A Breed Apart
In 1884, the Cleveland Bay Horse Society of Great Britain published the first volume of its Stud Book, with entries going back to 1860, containing stallions and mares selected for purity of blood, many of whose pedigrees traced back over a century. Several mares were entered who had eight generations of back breeding shown on the dam's side.
Cleveland Bays are one of the few "pure" breeds, with no recent outcrosses. In consequence, Cleveland Bays stamp their get with remarkable uniformity of size, conformation, soundness, stamina, disposition and color.
The Cleveland Bay is unique in its carefully maintained purity. While the warmbloods of France, Germany, Sweden, Poland, Hungary and other European countries have produced a number of good individuals, their pedigrees are riddled with recent Thoroughbred, Arabian and other outcrosses. It is interesting to note that the Cleveland Bay was used extensively last century to improve the European breeds! Registration in the European warmblood studbooks carries with it no guarantee or even probability that their offspring will inherit their excellence with any consistency. Currently several of the Continental breeds, having lost their own foundation stock by too much cross breeding, are coming to the Cleveland to reintroduce bone and substance.
The experience of centuries has shown that, above all else, the value of the Cleveland Bay lies in its prepotency. The Cleveland Bay's accomplishments and their prepotency prompted their use as foundation stock or improvement sires for the Oldenberg, Hanoverian, Anglo Norman (Selle Francais), Holsteiner, Clydesdale, and other breeds.
The Cleveland Bay breeds true. Foals resemble very closely their dam and sire; each foal is very similar to each other. Breeders with a large foal crop sometimes have problems distinguishing one foal from another. Horses are identified on their registration papers by their whorls.
The ancestors of the Cleveland Bay, known as Chapman horses, can be traced to the selective breeding practices by a far-sighted Abbott in the Cleveland hills (North Yorkshire, England) in 1231, where they were kept as a breed apart. Over the centuries of breeding, only minimal additions of outside blood have been allowed, this being the Barb and some Andalusian, both from the mid 1500's to 1600's.
North Yorkshire is also the origin of the Thoroughbred. This county, from about 1660 to 1740, by breeding desert-bred imported Arabian stallions to native British race mares, the D'arcys of Sedbury, the Darleys of Aldby, and other breeders, evolved the race horse now known as the Thoroughbred.
Between 1707 and 1780, thirty-two of the first offspring of the Arabian foundation sires of the Thoroughbred (the original, oriental type) were bred to Cleveland Bay mares.
It is certain that after the 18th century there was no other infusion of alien blood. By then the Cleveland had emerged as an unmistakably fixed type.
A Rare Breed
The Cleveland Bay is on the endangered species list. In the 1950's there were only four purebred stallions and 5 of their offspring left in the entire world. Queen Elizabeth II intervened and purchased a stallion, Mulgrave Supreme, who had been destined for export to the United States. He was made available to breeders of pure and partbred Clevelands with enormous success. Within 15 years of his purchase, the number of stallions in Britain had increased to 36, sixteen of which were the progeny of Mulgrave Supreme.
There are approximately 500 Cleveland Bays worldwide. In 1996 there were 53 purebreds in North America (including five in Canada), and several thriving studs in New Zealand, Pakistan and Australia, and the bulk of them (350 or so) in Britain. There are several in Japan as well: the Imperial Household has been importing CBs for many years.
The Clevelands Bay is known as the great improver, or up-grader, of other breeds. They are in demand for cross-breeding with Thoroughbreds to produce 3-day eventers (dressage, field jumping, show jumping), jumpers and dressage horses. They are most well-known as coach horses.
During the war years, the Cleveland Bay was the favored breed for war use. The British War Office offered a premium to Cleveland Bay stallions: many Cleveland Bays and CB partbreds were produced and were put into war service. During the two World Wars, approximately 1.5 million horses died. (On the Western Front alone, the Allied losses were 48,000 horses each month of all breeds.) Many of those horses that died were Cleveland Bays. It is interesting to note that the British War Office only discontinued its premiums to stallions in 1960.
Thus the Cleveland Bay has three reasons for its decline, two of which are directly related to the popularity of the breed:
the age of mechanization depleted the breed, as with all other horse breeds,
the popularity of cross-breeding, as opposed to breeding pure
war service was a major factor in the breed's decline.
Today, the Cleveland Bay is still heavily cross-bred with Thoroughbreds, and to many other breeds to a lesser extent.
In the 1960's, the Cleveland Bay started to make its come-back when the age of the recreational horse took hold. In 1983, the first purebred Cleveland Bay foal was born in the United States, after a hiatus of 25 years. However, in 1994, only 22 purebred fillies were registered world-wide.
Yorkshire Coach Horse
With the introduction of macadamised roads, the Cleveland Bay was considered not fast enough, and as a result the Yorkshire Coach Horse came into being. In 1887 a Yorkshire Coach Horse Stud Book was introduced, which contained horses that were three-quarters Cleveland Bay and one-quarter Thoroughbred. The Stud Book was closed in 1936 with the decline of the coaching era. Since the foundation breeds of the Yorkshire Coach Horse still exist, it would be possible to re-start this breed.
The Cleveland Bay is noted for its sturdy legs and large, tough "blue" hooves. The cannon bone is flat-front, 9" minimum. Cleveland Bays mature between 6 and 7 years, and are very long-lived. They will sometimes have a very pronounced Roman nose, which derives from the Iberian influence. The Cleveland Bay is hardy and is an easy keeper considering its size.
The Cleveland Bay is native to an area with an abundance of gumbo clay and water with a high iron content. The Cleveland was used for farming in this heavy clay land and it could haul very heavy loads in deep going. Today, the Cleveland has established itself as a heavy hunter able to jump out of clay almost from a standstill. A trait that lends itself well to the jumping disciplines is the boldness of the breed. The breed is also noted for its endurance ability, and its exceptional disposition. The British War Office prized this horse for war use because of its strength, endurance, hardiness, disposition, tractability and unflappability.
There have been many individual records, old and new, that have proved the abilities claimed for the breed. For example, consider the ancient achievement of a CB mare, "Fanny Drape", who jumped in-hand a 7.5-foot bar. These horses are known to be "full of courage" Fanny Drape was eventually asked to attempt the impossible and she broke her back trying. Cleveland Bays are natural jumpers, and they excel at verticals. The Cleveland and its crosses have a long history of records and accomplishments, some of which relate to world championships, including the Olympics.
The Cleveland Bay also has a reputation as a western horse. According to one American in 1940 (when there were more CBs and CB crosses in America than there are now), whose father owned a large ranch in the West and several hundred head of horses, there was "Among the stallions... one Cleveland Bay and, of course, he was bred to all kinds of range mares, but he turned out some of the best saddle horses in the country." He said they were capable of carrying a 200 pound cowboy plus all his equipment through a full day of roundup and stock work. "They had a lot of staying quality, were easy keepers and it took a Thoroughbred to outrun one in a race. It took a big steer on the end of a rope to even worry one of the partbred Cleveland saddle horses," he said.
One great admirer of the breed was Buffalo Bill, who imported many Clevelands into the United States.
The Royal Mews
The Cleveland Bay remains a superb crossing horse to breed hunters and competition horses for all the disciplines, and a part-bred registry is maintained so that horses may be traced and followed during their careers. Prince Phillip's very successful team of International Carriage Driving horses is an Oldenburg/Cleveland Bay cross. The Queen is patron to the Cleveland Bay Horse Society and was its President in 1984. Lt. Col. Sir John Miller, the former Crown Equerry, was President from 1987-89. Though retired from the Royal Mews, he is in charge of the Royal Stud at Hampton Court, where purebred Cleveland Bays are once more being bred.
The breed has long enjoyed royal patronage. George II was an enthusiast and King George V owned and/or breed 26 partbreds and five purebreds.
The North American Cleveland Bay Horse Society has its headquarters in Connecticut, USA, the Australasia Cleveland Bay Horse Society has its headquarters in Victoria, Australia, and the Cleveland Bay Horse Society has its headquarters in York, England. All registration is done through the CBHS in England. In the modern stud book, besides the sire, eight generations of backbreeding are shown on the dam's side. Because of the prepotence of the Cleveland Bay, partbreds up to 1/8th blood may be registered as Cleveland Bay partbreds (i.e., must have a purebred Cleveland Bay great grandparent).
The CBHS has various vet check and inspection programs in place for breeding stallions. In 1997 the CBHS held a breed conference, with another one scheduled for 2000. At this conference genetic research scientists offer their recommendations to the membership on how best to manage the breed to prevent inbreeding problems. For this reason the CBHS must be receptive, alive and innovative in its outlook. It quickly responds to professional recommendations and modifies its inspections and licencing programs when and as necessary to maintain the quality and purity of the breed. For current regulations please contact the CBHS-UK.
King George V Cup
The breed's most coveted award for stallions is the King George V Cup, annually competed for by ten Premium stallions in England.
Height: 16 to 16.2 hands, but height should not disqualify an otherwise good sort.
Colour: Bay with black points, i.e., black legs, black mane and black tail. Grey hairs in mane and tail do not disqualify. White is not admissible beyond a very small white star. Legs which are bay or red below the knees and hocks do not disqualify, but are faulty as to colour.
Body: Wide and deep. The back should not be too long, and should be strong with muscular loins. Shoulders should be sloping, deep and muscular. Quarters should be level, powerful, long and oval, the tail springing well from the quarters.
Head and Neck: Head should be bold and not too small. It should be well carried on a long lean neck.
Eyes: Large, well set and kindly in expression.
Ears: Large and fine.
Limbs: Arms, thighs and second thighs should be muscular. Knees and hocks should be large and well closed. There should be 9 inches upwards of good flat bone below the knee measured at the narrowest point on a tight tape. Pasterns should be strong and sloping and not too long. Legs should be clear of superfluous hair and as clean and hard as possible.
Feet: One of the most important features of the breed; the feet must be of the best and blue in colour. Shallow or narrow feet are undesirable.
Action: True, straight and free. High action is not characteristic of the breed. The Cleveland which moves well and which is full of courage will move freely from the shoulder, and will flex his knees and hocks sufficiently. The action required is free all round, gets over the ground, and fits the wear-and-tear qualities of the breed.
Type and Conformation: Connemaras in North America range from 13 to over 15 hands. Their colors are gray, bay, brown, and dun, with some roans, an occasional black, chestnut, or palomino. Piebalds and skewbalds are not acceptable for registration. Connemaras are the product of their original environment, the rugged mountain coast of West Ireland. Sure-footed, hardy and agile, they possess powers of great stamina, staying power and adaptability. They are renowned for their versatility and their gentle, tractable, sensible and willing dispositions.
Temperament: Mannerly and manageable, kind, responsive, possessing good sense and basic intelligence.
Type: Rugged and sturdy; body compact and deep through the heart; with well sprung rib cage and broad chest.
Action: Straight and true both front and rear with free movement in the shoulders. Connemaras should move underneath themselves and should be sure-footed, athletic, and clever, covering a lot of ground.
Head: Kind eye, head well shaped and balanced in proportion to the rest of the body, neck of good length and definition, meeting the shoulder smoothly.
Shoulders: Laid-back with good slope.
Back: Strong and muscular; some length of back is normal in Connemaras, especially in mares.
Hindquarters: Well rounded and deep with good length from the point of the hip through the haunch; should balance the shoulders.
Bone: Clean, hard, flat, measuring 7- 8 inches below the knee for ponies, more for horses; forearms and gaskins long and muscular, cannons short and very dense.
Joints: Large and well defined.
Feet: Hard, strong.